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Posted By: brain (Homo sapiens sapiens)
Date:      Fri May 20 21:16:00 1994
Title:     輪迴與認知科學


■ 說明:由於佈告愈來愈多,我將刪掉一些舊的佈告。為避免損失重要
   訊息,我會將同類的佈告整理成一個回顧的文章,然後一次刪掉舊佈
   告。在這個回顧文章中,每篇佈告的正文與作者都會被完整地保留。
   如果,在回顧貼出後有原作者表示原作不願被刪,我基本上尊重原作
   者的意願。從回顧貼出到刪舊佈告的緩衝期是一週。

■ 本次回顧說明:這篇回顧收集了一些關於輪迴與認知科學的討論。
===============================================================
■Posted By: wlin (林維藩)
Date:      Sun Feb 20 01:43:00 1994
Title:     輪迴與認知科學

小弟本身是學工科的,因為在十五年前曾接觸過一些心理學及精神醫學方面
的書籍,自己是很有興趣,但是了解不多.現在看到很多高手在這裡,希望大
家可以幫幫我.

我以前就有一個疑問,不管精神分析或行為學派,我覺得都不夠究竟,當然在
當時他們的貢獻很大,只是有些個案就無法很圓滿.

後來,我有一個想法,就是把輪迴的觀念加進去,這樣好像比較有連貫在一起.
在這裡,我不是以宗教的方式來處理,而是以科學的方式來探討,當然這是假
設的階段.要成立的話仍需要很嚴密的證明.

前一陣子,我看了"前世今生"(Many Lives, Many Masters, by Brian L.
Weiss).發現他跟我的看法很接近,只是他本人並沒有做驗證的工作.目前
我在看他的另一本書,Through Time Into Healing,其中列舉了許多的例子.
有些是別人的.他也提到一些參考資料,好像有些是被證明過.(有空我會到
圖書館去找這些參考資料),而且有許多醫生跟他有相同的經驗.全部說來,
輪迴(Reincarnation)有可能是存在的.(當然有可能是另一種,而輪迴只是
其中一個現象而已).

現在回到本題,"如果"輪迴是事實,以認知科學的角度,如何去處理他?對認
知科學的發展及影響如何? (這個問題也可以說對心理學及精神醫學的影響
如何?)


■Posted By: brain (Homo sapiens sapiens) on board 'psychology'
Date:      Sun Feb 20 02:42:37 1994
Title:     Re: 輪迴與認知科學

Posted By: wlin (林維藩)

>後來,我有一個想法,就是把輪迴的觀念加進去,這樣好像比較有連貫在一起.
>在這裡,我不是以宗教的方式來處理,而是以科學的方式來探討,當然這是假
>設的階段.要成立的話仍需要很嚴密的證明.

我們定義一下「輪迴現象」好了。「輪迴現象」是一個人除了對自己
實際經驗的記憶外,在他的記憶中也另外存有一些情節,不是自己親
身經歷過的,而是世上某一個在這個人出生前便死去的人,其生前的
實際經驗。

要怎麼找「輪迴現象」的證據?我們根據科學上因果關係的推論一步
步來。我們要檢驗的是,一個人對於自己未親身經歷過事件的記憶,
其原因為何。ヾ相關。必有一人其經歷,與我們的受試報告的那不屬
於他本身經驗的記憶有相關。ゝ時間先後。那人必在我們的受試出生
前死去。ゞ排除其他可能的原因。人的記憶很容易受扭曲,僅僅一點
點的暗示就可以做到。甚至只是後來的記憶都會扭曲先前的記憶。我
們的受試報告的不屬於他親身經驗的記憶,有可能是由其他原因造成
。如:自己的妄想或是心理醫師在治療中的暗示等等。我們必須能夠
將這些原因排除。三個條件都達到了,才可以說是有因果關係。

很難,沒錯。但如果不能通過嚴格的實驗檢驗,我們就沒有理由相信
所謂的「輪迴現象」。

>現在回到本題,"如果"輪迴是事實,以認知科學的角度,如何去處理他?對認
>知科學的發展及影響如何? (這個問題也可以說對心理學及精神醫學的影響
>如何?)

我覺得檢驗「輪迴現象」是我們該去做的。尤其是那些相信、支持「
輪迴」的人,更應該設計嚴謹的實驗,提出足以說服人的證據。科學
家對問題的態度是批判的,不輕易相信一個現象,除非有明確證據。
如果沒有「輪迴現象」,何來「輪迴歷程」。你說是嗎?「冷融合」
的做假事件你還記得嗎?科學界就是如此批判,因為其實驗不能被重
覆,終於發現那個實驗在過程中被動了手腳,前述因果關係推論原則
ゞ排除其他可能原因,因此未能符合。實驗結果的「原因」,除了「
冷融合」,還有「滴了重水」(感謝交大資科化學板管理者Fedinard
告訴我這點)。也因此實驗不是有效的,無法做因果關係的推論。科
學是一種一般的態度,不是限定於特定學科的。對「冷融合」、對「
輪迴現象」,盼望大家都能以同樣程度的「科學心」對待之(
scientific minded)。


■Posted By: Ferdinand (Shen) on board 'psychology'
Date:      Tue Feb 22 19:55:15 1994
Title:     Re: 輪迴與認知科學

Posted By: brain (Homo sapiens sapiens) on board 'psychology'
>我覺得檢驗「輪迴現象」是我們該去做的。尤其是那些相信、支持「
>輪迴」的人,更應該設計嚴謹的實驗,提出足以說服人的證據。科學
>家對問題的態度是批判的,不輕易相信一個現象,除非有明確證據。
>如果沒有「輪迴現象」,何來「輪迴歷程」。你說是嗎?「冷融合」
>的做假事件你還記得嗎?科學界就是如此批判,因為其實驗不能被重
>覆,終於發現那個實驗在過程中被動了手腳,前述因果關係推論原則
>ゞ排除其他可能原因,因此未能符合。實驗結果的「原因」,除了「
>冷融合」,還有「滴了重水」(感謝交大資科化學板管理者Fedinard
                     ^^^^ 是 "超重水" T2O
>告訴我這點)。也因此實驗不是有效的,無法做因果關係的推論。科
>學是一種一般的態度,不是限定於特定學科的。對「冷融合」、對「
>輪迴現象」,盼望大家都能以同樣程度的「科學心」對待之(
>scientific minded)。

     我喜歡這段話.但這種一切事都科學化的態度有時會
     帶來一些危險.君不見現在 "不科學" 這句話已經跟
     "野蠻\邪惡" 劃上了一定的等號.
     關於冷融合事件,我還有個尾聲. 當時搞出冷融合的
     那些人,去跟國會議員找預算時表演了所謂冷融合給
     非科學家看.他們同時電解輕水(H2O)和重水(D2O),
     然後告訴那些大爺,重水那邊會比較熱, 是因為有核
     融合發生了. 然後還叫議員們去摸杯子,整個過程很
     戲劇化. 但是有念過電化學的人都知道,氘離子比氫
     離子不易遷移,所以自然電阻大,發熱高.我認為那些
     傢伙是有意的欺騙.

     我有個疑問:科學上的欺騙在心理學上盛不盛?
     據我手上一本書說:有名的"同卵雙胞胎智商相關係數"
     "或是小 Albert 在醫院中被訓練到對長毛物體的恐懼"
     這些有名的心理實驗都是造假的!


■Posted By: wlin (林維藩)
Date:      Tue Mar  1 06:53:01 1994
Title:     References: Reincarnation

 4/5/1
00879609           80-04420
  Commentary on the Akolkar and Stevenson reports.
  Anderson, Rodger I.
  Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research
  1992 Jul Vol 86(3) 249-256
  ISSN:  00031070
  Journal Announcement:  8002
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
   Comments on the reports of V. V. Akolkar (see PA, Vol 80:4418) and I.
Stevenson (1984) of a case of xenoglossy in a 32-yr-old Indian woman. The
agreement between the reports shows how the case lends itself to a
reincarnation explanation and indicate how difficult it is to dismiss the
case as due to deceit, cryptomnesia, or malobservation.  (PsycINFO Database
Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Major   Descriptors:    *EXTRASENSORY   PERCEPTION;    *PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL
    PHENOMENA;  *MULTIPLE PERSONALITY
  Minor Descriptors:  CASE REPORT;  PROFESSIONAL CRITICISM;  LANGUAGE
  Descriptor Codes:   18850;  36470;  32480;  07790;  40700;  27740
  Identifiers:   alteration  of  personality  into young Bengali, 32 yr old
    female  with  xenoglossy,  India,  case  report,  application of ESP vs
    possession vs reincarnation explanations, commentary
  Section Headings:  2390 -PARAPSYCHOLOGY

 4/5/2
00879607           80-04418
  Search for Sharada: Report of a case and its investigation.
  Akolkar, V. V.
  Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research
  1992 Jul Vol 86(3) 209-247
  ISSN:  00031070
  Journal Announcement:  8002
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  ADULT
   Presents the case of Uttara Huddar, a Marathi-speaking woman of India
who began at the age of 32 yrs to undergo alterations of personality during
which she claimed to be a young Bengali woman named Sharada. At these times
she spoke fluent Bengali and behaved as if she were a Bengali woman of the
early 19th century. She also seemed mystified by modern ways and made
several verified statements about a family who had lived at that time.
Investigations showed that although Huddar had learned to read some
Bengali, this did not amount to proficiency; much less could it explain her
ability to speak the language. Although it is atypical of
reincarnation-type cases, in most of which the S is a young child,
reincarnation, rather than extrasensory cognition or possession, seems the
most satisfactory interpretation of this case.  (PsycINFO Database
Copyright 1993 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Major   Descriptors:    *EXTRASENSORY   PERCEPTION;    *PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL
    PHENOMENA;  *MULTIPLE PERSONALITY
  Minor Descriptors:  CASE REPORT;  LANGUAGE;  ADULTHOOD
  Descriptor Codes:   18850;  36470;  32480;  07790;  27740;  01150
  Identifiers:   alteration  of  personality  into young Bengali, 32 yr old
    female  with  xenoglossy,  India,  case  report,  application of ESP vs
    possession vs reincarnation explanations
  Section Headings:  2390 -PARAPSYCHOLOGY

 4/5/3
00850857           79-22425
  Three  conjectured  features  of reincarnation-type cases in North India:
Responses of persons unfamiliar with actual cases.
  Pasricha, Satwant
  Bangalore U, National Inst of Mental Health & Neurosciences, India
  Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research
  1990 Jul Vol 84(3) 227-233
  ISSN:  00031070
  Journal Announcement:  7907
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  ADULT
   Compared responses of 46 informants in India who had had no direct
contact with a case of the reincarnation type with features found in actual
cases with regard to 3 questions. These questions pertained to 3 recurrent
features of cases: the age at first speaking about a previous life, the age
at spontaneously stopping to speak about a previous life, and the mode of
death (violent or natural) associated with recall of a previous life. The
ages estimated by the respondents were significantly higher than those
found in actual cases for both starting as well as stopping to speak
spontaneously about the previous life. A violent mode of death, however,
was reported frequently by the respondents to be associated with recall of
a previous life. This accords with the findings in actual cases.  (PsycINFO
Database Copyright 1992 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Major Descriptors:  *INDIA;  *PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA
  Minor Descriptors:  ADULTHOOD
  Descriptor Codes:   24820;  36470;  01150
  Identifiers:   features  of  reincarnation  type cases of previous lives,
    informants acquainted vs unacquainted with actual cases, India
  Section Headings:  2390 -PARAPSYCHOLOGY

 4/5/4
00798313           78-17112
  An unusual case of hypnotic regression with some unexplained contents.
  Tarazi, Linda
  Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research
  1990 Oct Vol 84(4) 309-344
  ISSN:  00031070
  Journal Announcement:  7807
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  ADULT
   Discusses the hypnotic technique of past-life regression, in particular
the case of a woman and her obsession with a past life as Antonia in 16th
century Spain. In an effort to rid the S of her obsession, which caused her
to neglect the people and activities of her current life, the author
attempted to discount the reality of the past life by finding errors in the
story. After verifying hundreds of detailed facts in English and Spanish
texts, and through trips to Spain, the Caribbean, and North Africa, no
errors were found. Explanations offered for the past-life experience
include psychodynamic factors, fraud, cryptomnesia, role playing,
dissociation or multiple personality, genetic memory, racial memory,
clairvoyance, precognition, retrocognition, telepathy, mediumship,
possession, and reincarnation.  (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1991 American
Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Major Descriptors:  *HYPNOSIS;  *PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA
  Minor Descriptors:  ADULTHOOD
  Descriptor Codes:   23890;  36470;  01150
  Identifiers:   hypnotic  past life regression, adult female obsessed with
    her life in 16th century
  Section Headings:  2120 -PARAPSYCHOLOGY

 4/5/5
00720774           77-09588
  A  preliminary  investigation  of cases of reincarnation among the Beaver
and Gitksan Indians.
  Mills, Antonia
  U Virginia School of Medicine, Div of Personality Studies, US
  Anthropologica
  1988 Vol 30(1) 23-59
  Coden:  ATRPBS        ISSN:  00035459
  Journal Announcement:  7704
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
   Describes belief in and reported cases of reincarnation among 2 Native
Canadian groups, the Beaver and the Gitksan Indians, and provides examples
in which a child identified as a particular person was said tohave
returned. Group differences in beliefs (e.g., belief in cross-sex
reincarnation among the Beaver, multiple reincarnation of one person among
the Gitksan) are cited as examples of cultural conditioning. Belief in
reincarnation characterized shamanic cultures in general and was maintained
in many agricultural societies. The role of such case-oriented research
within the discipline of anthropology is discussed. (French abstract)  
(PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990 American Psychological Assn, all rights
reserved)
  Major Descriptors:  *RELIGIOUS BELIEFS;  *AMERICAN INDIANS
  Descriptor Codes:   43770;  02030
  Identifiers:   belief  in  &  cases  of  reincarnation,  Beaver & Gitksan
    Indians, Canada
  Section Headings:  2930 -CULTURE & ETHNOLOGY & RELIGION

 4/5/6
00707395           27-70592
  Analisis  tematico  de  los  delirios  endogenos.  (Thematic  analysis of
endogenous  deliria.)  XVII  National  Congress  of the Spanish Psychiatric
Society (1987, Pamplona, Spain).
  Sarro, Ramon
  Facultad de Medicina, Barcelona, Spain
  Revista de Psiquiatria y Psicologia Medica
  1987 Apr-Jun Vol 18(2) 65-79
  Journal Announcement:  2701
  Language:  Spanish
  Document Type:  SYMPOSIUM/CONVENTION PAPERS
  Composite Age:  ADULT
  Subfile:  DBO
   Interviewed patients with endogenous deliria. Against the opinions of a
large number of psychiatrists and psychologists, the present author
emphasizes the importance of delirious utterances, not only as symptoms of
specific psychiatric disorders but also as human documents. Based on 50
case histories, endogenous deliria were categorized according to their
broad themes (e.g., end-of-the-world experience; ontological
transformations of human life; reincarnation; New Age themes; immortality
of the human race; interhuman aggression; creation of symbols; cosmogony).
It is concluded that the psychiatrist as   homo sapiens   must understand
the utterances of   homo demens,   listening to his/her patients instead of
silencing them with psychodrugs. (0 ref)  (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1990
American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Major Descriptors:  *DELIRIUM;  *ORAL COMMUNICATION
  Minor Descriptors:  PROFESSIONAL MEETINGS AND SYMPOSIA;  ADULTHOOD
  Descriptor Codes:   13360;  35610;  40740;  01150
  Identifiers:   thematic  analysis of symptoms & utterances, patients with
    endogeneous delirium, Spain
  Section Headings:  3210 -MENTAL DISORDERS

 4/5/7
00677226           76-18534
  Three  new  cases  of  the  reincarnation  type in Sri Lanka with written
records made before verification.
  Stevenson, Ian;  Samararatne, Godwin
  U Virginia Medical Ctr, Div of Personality Studies, Charlottesville, US
  Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease
  1988 Dec Vol 176(12) 741
  Coden:  JNMDAN        ISSN:  00223018
  Journal Announcement:  7606
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  CHILD
   Presents the cases of 3 children in Sri Lanka who at age 3 yrs related
details about a previous life. It is concluded that the Ss had information
on deceased persons that could only be obtained paranormally.  (PsycINFO
Database Copyright 1989 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Major Descriptors:  *SRI LANKA;  *PARAPSYCHOLOGY
  Minor Descriptors:  CASE REPORT;  PRESCHOOL AGE CHILDREN;  CHILDHOOD
  Descriptor Codes:   49410;  36480;  07790;  40160;  08750
  Identifiers:   details about previous lives, 3 yr old females, Sri Lanka,
    case reports
  Section Headings:  2800 -DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY;  2120 -PARAPSYCHOLOGY

 4/5/8
00658701           76-00008
  Deception  and  self-deception  in cases of the reincarnation type: Seven
illustrative cases in Asia.
  Stevenson, Ian;  Pasricha, Satwant;  Samararatne, Godwin
  U Virginia Medical Ctr, Div of Personality Studies, Charlottesville, US
  Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research
  1988 Jan Vol 82(1) 1-31
  ISSN:  00031070
  Journal Announcement:  7601
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  ADULT
   Reports 7 cases of supposed reincarnation in Asia in which preliminary
information suggested that the case was authentic, but interviews with
informants showed that it was not. In 3 cases, informants seem to have
deceived themselves; in 2 cases hoaxes by villagers seem the best
interpretation; in the 6th case, both families concerned may have given
invalid testimony; and the 7th case was a hoax by a journalist. Sound
judgments about authenticity almost always require independent verification
of an S's statements.  (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1989 American
sychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Major  Descriptors:   *DECEPTION;   *DEATH AND DYING;  *PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL
    PHENOMENA;  *ASIA
  Minor Descriptors:  ADULTHOOD
  Descriptor Codes:   13170;  13110;  36470;  04000;  01150
  Identifiers:   incidence  of deception & self deception, persons claiming
    to have experienced reincarnation, Asia
  Section Headings:  2120 -PARAPSYCHOLOGY

 4/5/9
00650837           75-34528
  Indian cases of the reincarnation type two generations apart.
  Pasricha, Satwant;  Stevenson, Ian
  National  Inst  of  Mental  Health  &  Neurosciences,  Dept  of  Clinical
Psychology, Bangalore, India
  Journal of the Society for Psychical Research
  1987 Oct Vol 54(809) 239-246
  ISSN:  00379751
  Journal Announcement:  7512
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age: ADULT
   When comparisons were made between reincarnation type cases (36 Ss born
before 1936 and 54 Ss born in 1965 or later) on 54 variables including
demographic data, features of the cases, and the investigation of the
cases, significant differences occurred in only 5 variables.  (PsycINFO
Database Copyright 1988 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Major Descriptors:  *PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA
  Minor Descriptors:  DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS;  ADULTHOOD
  Descriptor Codes:   36470;  13460;  01150
  Identifiers:   demographic & case characteristics of reincarnation cases,
    adults born before 1936 vs 1965 or later, India
  Section Headings:  2120 -PARAPSYCHOLOGY

 4/5/10
00592805           74-23737
  Hypnosis   and  the  reincarnation  hypothesis:  A  critical  review  and
intensive case study.
  Venn, Jonathan
  Baltimore Gas & Electric Co, MD
  Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research
  1986 Oct Vol 80(4) 409-425
  ISSN:  00031070
  Journal Announcement:  7409
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  ADULT
   Conducted 60 hypnotic interviews with a 26-yr-old male who during the
sessions ""relived'' 4 other lifetimes. All relevant archives were
exhausted, and negative as well as positive data are reported. The
reincarnation hypothesis is juxtaposed with a more conventional hypothesis
based on modern theories of hypnosis, emphasizing normal factors such as
suggestion, role-playing, loss of inhibition, dissociation (including
cryptomnesia), and desire to please the hypnotist. A method was used in
which information found in public libraries and popular texts was
contrasted with information found in foreign archives, as a means of ruling
out paranormal knowledge. The results led to the rejection of paranormal
explanations for the present case.  (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1987
American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Major    Descriptors:     *HYPNOSIS;     *PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL   PHENOMENA;
    *EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
  Minor Descriptors:  CASE REPORT;  ADULTHOOD
  Descriptor Codes:   23890;  36470;  18590;  07790;  01150
  Identifiers:   critical  review  of  data derived from hypnotic past life
    regressions  &  rejection  of  paranormal explanations, 26 yr old male,
    case report
  Section Headings:  2120 -PARAPSYCHOLOGY

 4/5/11
00547610           73-17420
  The delusion of reliving one's life.
  Schneck, Jerome M.
  American Journal of Psychiatry
  1986 Mar Vol 143(3) 392-393
  Coden:  AJPSAO        ISSN:  0002953X
  Journal Announcement:  7307
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  ADULT
   Presents the case of a 36-yr-old schizophrenic female who reported that
her life was a duplication of a previous one, which the S claimed resulted
in an ability to foretell events and to recall aspects of infancy not
ordinarily remembered. (5 ref)  (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1986 American
Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Major Descriptors:  *SCHIZOPHRENIA;  *DELUSIONS
  Minor Descriptors:  CASE REPORT;  PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA;  ADULTHOOD
  Descriptor Codes:   45440;  13390;  07790;  36470;  01150
  Identifiers:    delusion   of   reincarnation,  36  yr  old  female  with
    schizophrenia
  Section Headings:  3210 -MENTAL DISORDERS

 4/5/12
00513117           72-20956
  Hypnotic regression and past lives therapy: Fantasy or reality?
  Marriott, Judith
  Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis
  1984 Sep Vol 5(2) 65-72
  ISSN:  01597175
  Journal Announcement:  7208
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  ADULT
   Discusses the concept and rationale of past-life therapy, which consists
of hypnotic regression into past lives. Past-life therapy is based on the
assumption that actions and problems in previous lives determine the
problems, neuroses, and phobias of one's present life. It is argued that
much of the controversy regarding past-lives phenomena revolves not so much
around the effectiveness of the therapy but around reincarnation, which is
the theoretical basis of past-life therapy. Three case histories are
presented to illustrate the clinical aspects of past-life therapy. It is
concluded that past-life therapy is a viable treatment that can take its
place along with other forms of psychotherapy, such as psychoanalysis,
Gestalt therapy, transactional analysis, and behavior therapy. (19 ref)  
(PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights
reserved)
  Major Descriptors:  *HYPNOTHERAPY;  *PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC TECHNIQUES
  Minor Descriptors:  ADULTHOOD
  Descriptor Codes:   23910;  42060;  01150
  Identifiers:  hypnotic regression & past lives therapy, clients
  Section Headings:  3350 -HYPNOTHERAPY

 4/5/13
00503218           72-11029
  Case studies in parapsychology: A report on a conference held in honorof
Dr. Louisa E. Rhine.
  Rogo, D. Scott
  John F. Kennedy U
  Parapsychology Review
  1984 Sep-Oct Vol 15(5) 5-7
  Coden:  PAREDT        ISSN:  00311804
  Journal Announcement:  7205
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
   Reports on a conference entitled ""Case Studies in Parapsychology,''
which was held in honor of the late parapsychologist Louisa E. Rhine on
November 13, 1983 by the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man.
Papers included one submitted by D. H. Weiner and J. Haight on Rhine's
thinking about spontaneous ESP; a reanalysis of Rhine's case studies to
identify the phenomenological constants of the ESP experience, by S. A.
Schouten; and a paper on the philosophical, cultural, and teleological
settings from which the Rhines worked, by K. Ramakrishna Rao. Other papers
submitted were reports on apparitions, the out-of-body experience,
reincarnation research, and spontaneous psychokinesis.  (PsycINFO Database
Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Major Descriptors:  *PARAPSYCHOLOGY;  *PROFESSIONAL MEETINGS AND SYMPOSIA
  Minor Descriptors:  PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA
  Descriptor Codes:   36480;  40740;  36470
  Identifiers:  studies in parapsychology, conference presentation
  Section Headings:  2120 -PARAPSYCHOLOGY

 4/5/14
00459904           71-08265
  A review and analysis of ""unsolved'' cases of the reincarnation type: I.
Introduction and illustrative case reports.
  Cook, Emily W. et al
  U Virginia, Div of Parapsychology, Charlottesville
  Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research
  1983 Jan Vol 77(1) 45-62
  ISSN:  00031070
  Journal Announcement:  7104
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  CHILD
   Children who claim to remember previous lives make statements about
those lives that vary greatly in the amount, specificity, and accuracy of
detail. Most cases so far reported have included enough detailed statements
to permit the identification of a particular deceased person whose life
corresponds to the S's statements. In some cases, however, the S has given
insufficient detail to permit such identification. The importance of these
""unsolved'' cases is discussed, and some illustrative examples are
presented. Several ways are discussed in which the investigation and
analysis of such cases may contribute to an understanding of all cases of
the reincarnation type. Brief reports are given of 7 unsolved cases in
Lebanon, India, Sri Lanka, and Burma. In each of the cases, the amount and
specificity of detail included in the child's statements seemed to warrant
a search to identify the ""previous personality''; but despite extensive
inquiries, all 7 cases remain unsolved. Following each case report,
comments are offered about features of the case that may have contributed
to the failure to identify a person corresponding to the S's statements. (5
ref)  (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1984 American Psychological Assn, all
rights reserved)
  Major Descriptors:  *PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA
  Minor Descriptors:  METHODOLOGY ;  CHILDHOOD
  Descriptor Codes:   36470;  31140;  08750
  Identifiers:  significance of ""unsolved'' cases, children claiming to be
    reincarnated
  Section Headings:  2120 -PARAPSYCHOLOGY

 4/5/15
00382765           67-08697
  The mystical model for parapathology, and application.
  Whiteman, J. Michael
  Parapsychological Journal of South Africa
  1980 Jul-Dec Vol 1(2) 14-44
  Journal Announcement:  6705
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  ADULT
   The role played by interior contests, mental stress, and escape states
in the development of 4 chief mental functions and 3 chief spiritual powers
necessary for mystical ""release'' and integration is outlined in relation
to the author's recent paper (1979-1980) on this model. Indications for
diagnosis are presented, and 3 illustrative case histories are analyzed.
Finally, the bearing of the model on parapsychology is indicated by a
discussion on (1) the hierarchical world view, (2) personality structure,
(3) the psychology of sensitives and mediums, and (4) survival and
reincarnation. (24 ref)  (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1982 American
Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Minor Descriptors:  MYSTICISM;  PARAPSYCHOLOGY;  PSYCHOPATHOLOGY;  MODELS
  Descriptor Codes:   32870;  36480;  41820;  31805
  Identifiers:  mystical model for parapsychology & psychopathology
  Section Headings:  2120 -PARAPSYCHOLOGY

 4/5/16
00352697           65-12976
  Multiple  personality  in  India:  Comparison  with hysterical possession
state.
  Varma, Vijoy K.;  Bouri, Manjeet;  Wig, Narendra N.
  Postgraduate Inst of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India
  American Journal of Psychotherapy
  1981 Jan Vol 35(1) 113-120
  Coden:  AJPTAR        ISSN:  00029564
  Journal Announcement:  6506
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  ADULT
   A case of multiple personality in a 40-yr-old Indian female is reported
from India and the condition compared with a hysterical possession state.
The documented high incidence of hysterical possession in India has been
related to religious beliefs of polytheism and reincarnation, and the
apparently higher incidence of multiple personality in the West to social
approval of role-playing. (18 ref)  (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1981
American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Minor   Descriptors:    MULTIPLE  PERSONALITY;   SOCIOCULTURAL  FACTORS;
    RELIGIOUS BELIEFS;  CASE REPORT;  PSYCHODIAGNOSIS;  INDIA
  Descriptor Codes:   32480;  48500;  43770;  07790;  41600;  24820
  Identifiers:  cultural & religious factors, diagnosis of hysterical state
    vs multiple personality, 40 yr old female, India
  Section  Headings:   3210 -MENTAL DISORDERS;  2930 -CULTURE & ETHNOLOGY &
    RELIGION

 4/5/17
00346380           65-06659
  What  next in survival research: VI. The search for the less than perfect
case of the reincarnation type.
  Stevenson, Ian
  U Virginia Medical Ctr, Div of Parapsychology, Charlottesville
  Journal of Indian Psychology
  1979 Jan Vol 2(1) 30-34
  Journal Announcement:  6504
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  ADULT
   For the increasing numbers of cases of the reincarnation type,
unreliable testimony (paramnesia on the part of informants) is emerging as
the most likely interpretation of the cases alternative to reincarnation.
Although there are grounds for thinking that paramnesia on the part of the
informants is not preferable to reincarnation for many cases, greater
efforts should be made to eliminate it completely. It can be excluded in a
small number of cases in which a written record is made of what the Ss said
before the 2 families concerned in a case met. Probably more cases of this
important type can be found when funds permit the deployment of a larger
number of field investigators. (3 ref)  (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1981
American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Minor Descriptors:  PARAPSYCHOLOGY;  DEATH AND DYING
  Descriptor Codes:   36480;  13110
  Identifiers:    unreliable  testimony  in  search  for  perfect  case  of
    reincarnation
  Section Headings:  2120 -PARAPSYCHOLOGY

 4/5/18
00346365           65-06644
  What  next  in  survival research: IV. From guesses to enumeration: Plans
for a census of reincarnation type cases in India.
  Barker, David R.
  U Virginia Medical Ctr, Div of Parapsychology, Charlottesville
  Journal of Indian Psychology
  1979 Jan Vol 2(1) 19-23
  Journal Announcement:  6504
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  ADULT
   Reports that new data processing capacities and research strategies for
locating cases are refining the understanding of important features of
reincarnation cases and their distribution and prevalence in India. An
analysis of computerized data from 113 cases has resulted in a description
(which is included) of a typical case from North India with which new cases
may be compared. (13 ref)  (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1981 American
Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Minor Descriptors:  INDIA;  DATA PROCESSING;  PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA
    ;  METHODOLOGY ;  DEATH AND DYING
  Descriptor Codes:   24820;  13020;  36470;  31140;  13110
  Identifiers:   application  of data processing & new research strategies,
    reincarnation studies, India
  Section Headings:  2100 -GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY

 4/5/19
00339747           65-00021
  A  preliminary  report  on an unusual case of the reincarnation type with
xenoglossy.
  Stevenson, Ian;  Pasricha, Satwant
  U Virginia Medical Ctr, Div of Parapsychology
  Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research
  1980 Jul Vol 74(3) 331-348
  ISSN:  00031070
  Journal Announcement:  6501
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  ADULT
   This reincarnation case has 3 unusual features: (a) The S was in her 30s
when she began to have apparent memories of a previous life; in cases of
this type memories usually begin much earlier. (b) The memories occurred
only during periods of marked change in the S's personality. (c) The new
personality that emerged spoke Bengali, a language that the S could not
speak or understand in her normal state. A careful investigation of the S's
background and early life disclosed no opportunities for her to have
learned to speak Bengali before the case developed. A final interpretation
of this case cannot be made on the basis of present information and
knowledge. The authors believe, however, that the data of the case are best
accounted for at present by supposing that the S had had memories of the
life of a Bengali woman who died about 1830. (32 ref)  (PsycINFO Database
Copyright 1981 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Minor Descriptors:  PARAPSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA;  CASE REPORT
  Descriptor Codes:   36470;  07790
  Identifiers:   unusual  case  of reincarnation with xenoglossy, 32 yr old
    female
  Section Headings:  2120 -PARAPSYCHOLOGY

 4/5/20
00323751           64-03454
  Examination of the claims of reincarnation in a psychotic condition.
  Pasricha, Satwant K.;  Murthy, H. N.;  Murthy, Vinoda N.
  National Inst of Mental Health & Neuro-sciences, Bangalore, India
  Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology
  1978 Sep Vol 5(2) 197-202
  ISSN:  03032582
  Journal Announcement:  6402
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  ADULT
   Used the method described by I. Stevenson (1975) to examine a 30-yr-old
male patient's claims of recollections of a previous life. The S's claims
were compared with those of persons who make such claims in an undisturbed
state of mind. A plausible interpretation for claims of recalling previous
life in psychiatric conditions is suggested. (13 ref)  (PsycINFO Database
Copyright 1980 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Minor Descriptors:  CASE REPORT;  PSYCHOSIS;  MEMORY;  DELUSIONS
  Descriptor Codes:   07790;  41910;  30570;  13390
  Identifiers:  examination of claims of recollections of previous life, 30
    yr old male psychotic patient
  Section  Headings:   3210 -MENTAL DISORDERS;  2930 -CULTURE & ETHNOLOGY &
    RELIGION

 4/5/21
00250908           59-04628
  The explanatory value of the idea of reincarnation.
  Stevenson, Ian
  U Virginia Medical Ctr
  Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease
  1977 May Vol 164(5) 305-326
  Coden:  JNMDAN        ISSN:  00223018
  Journal Announcement:  5903
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  ADULT
   Proposes that the idea of reincarnation has explanatory value for
several features of human personality and biology. Cases are cited of 55
individuals who have claimed to remember previous lives and most of whose
statements have been verified in the course of detailed investigations. For
each case, a reference is provided to a detailed published case report
furnishing the evidence in that case. The idea of reincarnation may
contribute to an improved understanding of such diverse matters as phobias
and philias of childhood; skills not learned in early life; abnormalities
of child-parent relationships; vendettas and bellicose nationalism;
childhood sexuality and gender identity confusion; birthmarks, congenital
deformities, and internal diseases; differences between members of
monozygotic twin pairs; and abnormal appetites during pregnancy. Empirical
studies of cases of the reincarnation type have so far not provided any
evidence that justifies using reincarnation as an explanation for the
occurrence of child prodigies or the large inequities in socioeconomic
conditions of humans at birth. (43 ref)  (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1978
American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Minor  Descriptors:   PERSONALITY  ;   BIOLOGY;  RELIGIOUS BELIEFS;  CASE
    REPORT;  PARAPSYCHOLOGY
  Descriptor Codes:   37870;  06010;  43770;  07790;  36480
  Identifiers:   explanatory value of idea of reincarnation for features of
    human personality & biology, case reports
  Section Headings:  2120 -PARAPSYCHOLOGY

 4/5/22
00061733           44-11551
  The Soal-Cooper-Davis communal ''I''.
  Ellwood, Gracia F.
  International Journal of Parapsychology
  1968, 10(4), 392-409.
  Journal Announcement:  4408
  Language:  English
  Document Type:  JOURNAL ARTICLE
  Composite Age:  ADULT
   Presents the communal ''I'' as exemplified in the Soal-Cooper-Davis case
to suggest an expansion of the theory of reincarnation by means of a
paradoxical contemporaneity, allowing for more stress on the individuality
of the persons concerned. (18 ref.)  (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1970
American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved)
  Minor Descriptors:  PARAPSYCHOLOGY;  THEORIES
  Descriptor Codes:   36480;  52590
  Identifiers:     Soal-Cooper-Davis    communal    ''I'',   expansion   of
    reincarnation theory
  Section Headings:  2300 -HUMAN EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY

■Posted By: brain (Homo sapiens sapiens) on board 'psychology'
Date:      Tue Mar  1 10:51:23 1994
Title:     Re: References: Reincarnation

wlin,

(1) 謝謝您提供的這些資料。由於我最近忙實驗,改天有空細讀
    再作評論。我想,如果我有時間看,我會著重在 methodology
    上。

(2) 我大略瀏覽了一下這些文章發表的期刊,發現仍以臨床心理
    或精神醫學方面的為主,而且都不是主要的期刊。(似乎沒
    有一本是 American Psychological Association 的期刊)
    另外,認知心理學的角度的文獻似乎也沒有。這是否代表證
    據(不管支持或否定)的可信度不是那麼高我不敢講,等我
    有機會看完再談吧。

(3) 您是不是談談您的意見?
===============================================================




:::. brain [現代智人之腦]=The brain of Homo sapiens sapiens .:::::::::
:::. 國立中正大學心理學系=Dept of Psychology, Natl Chung-Cheng Univ .:
:. 621 中華民國台灣嘉義縣=Chia-Yi, Taiwan 621, R. O. C. .:::::::::::::
:::::. 右邊是電子郵件地址=E-mail: g8132101@ccunix.ccu.edu.tw .::::::::


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